Coronavirus vaccine development: from SARS and MERS to COVID-19

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new type of coronavirus that causes the Corona‑
virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been the most challenging pandemic in this century. Considering its high
mortality and rapid spread, an efective vaccine is urgently needed to control this pandemic. As a result, the academia,
industry, and government sectors are working tightly together to develop and test a variety of vaccines at an unprec‑
edented pace. In this review, we outline the essential coronavirus biological characteristics that are important for vac‑
cine design. In addition, we summarize key takeaways from previous vaccination studies of Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), highlighting the
pros and cons of each immunization strategy. Finally, based on these prior vaccination experiences, we discuss recent
progress and potential challenges of COVID-19 vaccine development.


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